Installation & Tools

Rules to be more effective

  • Do commit early and often.[ref]
  • Do make useful commit messages.
  • Create a new branch for every new feature.
  • Use pull requests to merge code to master.[ref]

Settings on local machine

Set the global information on local:

git config --global user.name "Anh-Thi DINH"
git config --global user.email "[email protected]"

Save github account as default (so that we don’t need to log in again every time we use):

git config credential.helper store
# then (for the first time usage)
git pull

If you meet an error like Could not resolve host: github.com, try this:

git config --global --unset http.proxy 
git config --global --unset https.proxy

Formatting the display:

git config color.ui true # add colors to the results
git config format.pretty oneline # disply only one line of each commit

Repositories

Create a repository:

git init <repo-name>

Clone a repository (using HTTPS method)

git clone <repo-link>

Git GUI

Open a Git GUI: git gui or gitk (they are different).

Staged & Commits & Push & Pull

Staged

Add the modifications to the staged:

git add * # add all the changes
git add <file-name> # only add the <file-name> to the staged

Unstage the file to current commit (HEAD):

git reset HEAD <file>

Unstaged everthing -retain changes:

git reset

Commit & Push

Make a commit (move from staged to commit):

git commit -m "<comment-for-this-commit>
git commit -a # commit any files

Push the commits to the remote:

git push origin <branch-name> # push only <branch-name>
git push --all origin # push all branches

If you wanna come to a <commit-id> for testing:

git checkout <commit-id>
# after testing
git checkout <current-branch>

Pull

List all currently configured remote repositories:

git remote -v

Copy a copy from the remote:

git fetch origin <branch-on-remote>

Compare the current branch to this copy:

git diff --stat FETCH_HEAD

Update from remote to local:

git pull origin <branch-on-remote>

Check the status

git status

If one wants some colors:

git log --oneline --graph --color --all --decorate
# --graph: draw text-based branches
# --decorate: display names and tags

Check some commit:

git log -- <file> # check commits containing <file>
git log --prep="abc" # look for commits containing "abc" in their name
git log <from>..<to> # display commints from <from> to <to> (commit's id, branch's name,...) 

Branches

Create

Create a new branch (but stay in the current one)

git branch <branch-name>

Create a new branch (and move to this new one)

git checkout -b <branch-name>

Two branches

Change to another branch:

git checkout <branch-name>

List all branches on local:

git branch

List all branches on local and remote:

git branch -a

Comparing two branches:

git diff <source-branch> <compared-branch>

Delete

Delete a local branch:

git branch -d <branch-name>

Delete a remote branch:

git push origin :<branch-name>
# or
git push --delete origin <branch-name>

Merge

Merge <branch> to current branch

git merge <branch>

Merge a <sub-branch> to the master branch and replace the master branch:

git checkout <sub-branch>
git merge -s ours master
git checkout master
git merge <sub-branch>

Merge a file from <branch-1> to <branch-2>:

git checkout <branch-1> # first, go back to <branch-1>
git checkout --patch <branch-2> <file>
# choose "y" if asked
git add <file>
git commit

Others

Add a description (using Vim editor):

git branch --edit-description

In the case you wanna exit Vim, press ESC then type :q to quit or :wq to write and quit.

Discard the changes

Discard changes on current directory:

git checkout -- . # for all changes
git checkout -- <file-name> # for a specific file (go back the last commit of this file)

Discard all local changes to all files permanently:

git reset --hard

In the case you want to discard the changes but want to make a save before moving to another branch to test. You can use below line.

git stash

If you wanna get back to the place you saved (and remove it from the stashed list), just go back to the branch you make the save and use

git stash pop

Restore

Restore a file to the last commit:

git checkout -- <file>

Discard all the changes on local and get from the remote:

git fetch origin
git reset --hard origin/master

Erase all commits and back to <commmit-id>:

git reset --hard <commit-id>

Alias

Normally, we use git branch. If we wanna use git br instead, we use an alias:

git config alias.br branch

Notice an error?

Everything on this site is published on Github. Just summit a suggested change or email me directly (don't forget to include the URL containing the bug), I will fix it.